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A computer numerical control (CNC) system consists of three basic components: CNC software that is a program of instructions, a machine control unit, and processing equipment, also called machine tool. The general relationship among these three components is illustrated in Fig.

Components of a CNC system :
*Central processing unit (CPU)
*Input devices.
*Machine control panel.
8Programmable logic controller (PLC)
*Servo-control unit.
*Display unit.

The development of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines is a tremendous contribution to the manufacturing industry. Simply put, a CNC system receives and interprets the data and then controls certain actions accordingly. The CNC systems, a versatile form of soft automation, are mostly used in the lathe machine, milling machine, laser machine, sheet metal process, etc. The concept was originally developed to control operation and motion of machine tools.

The CNC is a computer-based electronic equipment, as mentioned earlier, which receives information in digital form from input devices, as well as positional information of certain elements of the machine. Then it interprets the digital data as requirements for new positions of the machine elements and gives appropriate commands of direction.

CNC systems can be applied to a broad range of industrial applications. Following are some of the industries where CNC machining is used:

*Metal fabrication
*Electrical discharge machining
*Automotive
*Manufacturing
*Electronics
*Agriculture

The manufacturing industry relies heavily on CNC machining. Improved automation is the first benefit offered by almost all types of CNC machine tools. The manufacturer can reduce or completely eliminate the human intervention in a production process.